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Neo-Fascism

Essentially, Neo-fascism is a new form of fascism. After World War II and the fall of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler's Fascist an Nazi regimes, neo-fascism begin to spread as a way to revive fascism while tacking on new elements. Neo-fascist groups are primarily found in Europe and the United States.

In Europe, Neo-fascist groups added on to the original fascist beliefs in various ways. Similar to fascist beliefs, European neo-fascist groups play on the emotions of people through myths. This can involve propaganda, conspiracy theories, and the traditions and values of the culture. There was an encouragement of extreme nationalism and patriotism towards ones nation. Involved in this encouragement was the ideas of racialism and xenophobia.

The idea of xenophobia was a fear of immigrants, taking over jobs and opportunities of long standing citizens. This is a very big issue today in France. Many immigrants are coming into France to find new opportunities and the French are making it very hard to find those jobs. The three major groups that are getting hit by this are classified as les Asiatiques, les noirs, and les Maghrebins. Les Maghrebins is the group that is getting hit the hardest. It is difficult for them to get jobs and don't get as many benefits as a natural citizen. The group that fuels this xenophobia in France is le Front National, the extreme right. Leading this group is Jean-Marie Le Pen. They are trying to make it so that les Maghrebins cannot live in France. They claim les Maghrebins as untouchables.1

Similar groups can be found all over Europe, but groups are well known to exist in Germany and Greece.

Within the United States, neo-fascist groups have sprung up rapidly. These groups have a very black and white view of the world, with no gray area for change. There is also also an exaggerated view of individual liberties concurrent with a hatred towards other citizens. Many of these groups believe that the citizens that should be allowed in the United States are those that have been there for a long time, and immigrants should not be allowed in. These groups may also be anti-government, although they are organized, they don't approve of the United States government. There is also a sense of political paranoia and the idea of a doomsday forecast. They believe that the world will end with a racial holy war, with a superior race taking over.

The following image is the idea that there are fascists everywhere, we just don't realize it. It goes hand in hand with the concept of neo fascist groups, many of which are not well known. It is not as if there as a flashing sign pointing to fascist for everyone to see, rather fascist and neo-fascist elements can be found everywhere.

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For more information on fascist beliefs, visit the Blue Group.

Neo Fascism in Starship Troopers

Understanding the basics of neo-fascist groups, it is necessary to apply them to the involvement of neo-fascism in Heinlein's Starship Troopers. There are many similarities between Heinlein's novel and fascist beliefs, along with neo-fascist beliefs.

The society in Heinlein's novel has a very black and white view, and a very strict ruling system. Although residents are allowed to speak their minds, most things are not changed because the government has enough control to ensure that everything is run just so.

The idea of a racial holy war is somewhat exhibited in the war with the Bugs. Either the bugs or the members of the Terran nation must win this war, with one completely destroying the other. The war started for land and resources, and although it is not instigated by racist objectives, it is a war between two races. 'Either we spread and wipe out the Bugs, or they spread and wipe us out—because both races are tough adn smart and want the same real estate."3

Terran definitely has a strong display of nationalism and a will to do whatever is necessary for one's country. Most of this comes from military training, and the idea that dying for one's nation is the best thing a person can do. Although the Terran nation does not seem to have immigration problems and issues with xenophobia there is still a sense of patriotism and nationalism.

Johnnie explains the book's definition of the difference between a soldier and a civilian in his History & Moral Philosophy class. "A solider accepts personal responsibility for the safety of the body politic of which he is a member, defending it, if need be, with his life. The civilian does not."4 This explains the nationalism that a soldier has compared to a civilian. As with any nation, a soldier is going to have extreme pride for his or her nation and a great sense of patriotism.

Although there is neo-fascist evidence in Starship Troopers, writing a book does not make Heinlein a neo-fascist. Because writing can be considered the way an author speaks his or her mind, it is easy to understand why many people think that what is portrayed in a novel must be the author's opinion. However, a novel does not give direct proof of he author's ideals, so one cannot prove that Heinlein is a neo-fascist simply by examining his text.

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